Grade 1 Mathematics Lesson Plan: Numbers, Operations, and Relationships

Lesson Plan Title:

Grade 1 Mathematics Lesson Plan: Solving Addition and Subtraction Problems up to 20

Materials Needed:

  • Number flashcards (1-20)
  • Counters or small objects for counting
  • Worksheets with addition and subtraction problems
  • Whiteboard and markers
  • Interactive whiteboard or tablet (optional, for digital activities)
  • Pencils and erasers
  • Visual aids (pictures for word problems)

Learning Objectives:

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:
1. Understand and perform addition and subtraction within 20.
2. Use counters or visual aids to solve addition and subtraction problems.
3. Write and solve simple addition and subtraction equations.
4. Solve basic word problems involving addition and subtraction.


  1. Addition – Combining two groups of objects to find how many in total.
  2. Subtraction – Taking away a group of objects from another group to find out how many are left.
  3. Total – The final amount after addition.
  4. Difference – The amount left after subtraction.
  5. Equation – A mathematical statement that shows two expressions are equal, represented with an ‘=’ sign.

Previous Learning:

Students have already learned:
– Basic number recognition and counting up to 20.
– Introduction to the concepts of addition and subtraction.

Anticipated Challenges and Solutions:

  1. Challenge: Students might struggle with distinguishing between addition and subtraction.
    Solution: Use clear visual aids and physical objects to demonstrate the operations.

  2. Challenge: Some students may find it difficult to solve word problems.
    Solution: Read the word problems aloud and use pictures to illustrate the scenarios.

  3. Challenge: Students who are advanced may finish the tasks quickly.
    Solution: Provide extra worksheets with more challenging problems for early finishers.

Beginning Activities (4 minutes):

  • Activity: Introduction and Warm-Up
  • Greet the students warmly.
  • Briefly review counting up to 20.
  • Introduce the lesson objectives: understanding and solving addition and subtraction problems up to 20.
  • Use flashcards to quickly quiz students on numbers between 1 and 20.

Middle Activities (32 minutes):

  • Activity 1: Direct Instruction (10 minutes)
  • Demonstrate addition using counters: “Let’s add 7 and 5 using our counters.”
  • Write the equation on the board: 7 + 5 = 12.
  • Show subtraction using counters: “Now, let’s subtract 4 from 12 using our counters.”
  • Write the equation on the board: 12 – 4 = 8.

  • Activity 2: Guided Practice (12 minutes)

  • Hand out small counters and worksheets with simple addition and subtraction problems.
  • Work through several problems together, ensuring students use their counters correctly.
  • Walk around the classroom, offering assistance where needed.

  • Activity 3: Independent Practice (10 minutes)

  • Provide students with additional worksheets.
  • Encourage students to solve the problems independently using their counters.
  • Once they finish, check their work and provide feedback.

End Activities (4 minutes):

  • Exit Ticket Activity:
  • Distribute a small slip of paper to each student with one addition problem and one subtraction problem.
  • Have students solve the problems and submit their answers as they leave the class.

Assessment and Checks for Understanding:

  • Observations during guided practice.
  • Correct answers during independent practice and exit ticket activity.
  • Verbal questioning throughout the lesson.

Differentiation Strategies for Diverse Learners:

  • For struggling students: Provide additional one-on-one support and use more visual aids. Simplify the problems.
  • For advanced learners: Offer more challenging problems and word problems that require critical thinking.
  • For EAL learners: Use visual aids and physical objects extensively. Pair up with a buddy who speaks the same home language if possible.

Teaching Notes:

  • Emphasise the difference between addition and subtraction using language cues (“combine,” “take away”).
  • Ensure to use positive reinforcement to build confidence in students.
  • Be patient and give clear instructions and examples.
  • Assess students’ fine motor skills with their ability to place and count counters effectively.
  • Ensure the classroom environment is friendly and encouraging to reduce math anxiety.

This lesson provides a hands-on and visual approach to solving addition and subtraction problems, which is crucial in understanding these foundational concepts in mathematics.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.