Grade R Coding and Robotics Lesson Plan: Coding

Lesson Plan Title:

Grade R Coding and Robotics Lesson Plan: Introduction to Computational Thinking and Logical Instructions

Materials Needed:

  • Cardboard cut-outs of arrows (forward, left, right)
  • Simple robot toys or bee-bots
  • Floor grid of 4×4 squares marked with tape
  • Printed worksheets with mazes
  • Storybooks related to robots (optional)
  • Interactive whiteboard or projector

Learning Objectives:

  • Understand the basics of computational thinking.
  • Create simple sequences of instructions to guide a toy robot through a grid.
  • Develop problem-solving skills in context.


  1. Robot – A machine programmed by humans to perform tasks.
  2. Sequence – A specific order in which events, movements, or items follow each other.
  3. Instruction – A direction or order for something to be done.
  4. Grid – A network of lines that cross each other to form a series of squares or rectangles.
  5. Command – An order given to a robot or computer to perform a specific task.

Previous Learning:

The students have previously been introduced to basic directional language and can understand concepts like “forward,” “left,” and “right.” They have also engaged in simple problem-solving activities.

Anticipated Challenges and Solutions:

  • Challenge: Some students may struggle to grasp the concept of sequence.
  • Solution: Use physical demonstrations with a toy robot to reinforce learning.
  • Challenge: Keeping young learners engaged for the duration of the lesson.
  • Solution: Break the lesson into interactive parts and use a variety of teaching materials.

Beginning Activities (10% of Lesson Time – ~4 minutes):

  1. Introduction (2 minutes): Briefly introduce the learning objectives. Explain that today they will be learning how to give instructions to a robot to help it move through a maze.
  2. Activation of Prior Knowledge (2 minutes): Use a storybook about robots. After the story, ask students if they remember the directions left, right, and forward.

Middle Activities (80% of Lesson Time – ~32 minutes):

  1. Direct Instruction (5 minutes): Demonstrate how to use cardboard cut-out arrows to form a sequence of instructions on the floor grid. For example, “forward,” “left,” “forward,” etc.
  2. Guided Practice (10 minutes): Split the class into small groups. Give each group a simple robot toy and a grid. Guide them in creating a sequence of instructions to move their robot from one point to another.
  3. Independent Practice (15 minutes): Provide printed worksheets with mazes. Have students draw arrows indicating the correct sequence of instructions to guide the robot through the maze.
  4. Interactive Game (2 minutes): Ask one group to share their sequence and demonstrate using the toy robot on the floor grid.

End Activities (10% of Lesson Time – ~4 minutes):

  1. Review and Conclusion (2 minutes): Summarise the lesson. Ask students what commands they used and how they figured out the correct path for the robot.
  2. Exit Ticket (2 minutes): Have students draw one sequence of arrows on a small worksheet and explain how it would move the robot on the grid.

Assessment and Checks for Understanding:

  • Observation during guided and independent practice to ensure students correctly sequence the robot’s movements.
  • Review of exit tickets to assess each student’s understanding of the concept.

Differentiation Strategies for Diverse Learners:

  • Scaffolding: Provide additional visual aids such as coloured arrows and step-by-step guidance for students who need more support.
  • Extension: For advanced learners, introduce obstacles on the grid and challenge them to create more complex sequences to navigate around these obstacles.
  • Accessibility: Ensure all materials and activities are accessible to students with disabilities. For instance, provide larger, easy-to-handle arrows for students with fine motor challenges and use verbal instructions in addition to visual aids.

Teaching Notes:

  • Emphasise the importance of sequence and order in giving instructions.
  • Keep the activities varied and interactive to maintain engagement.
  • Use positive reinforcement to encourage participation and validate correct answers.
  • Keep an eye on the time to ensure each activity fits within the allotted time slots.

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