English FAL Matric Revision: Writing directions, procedural text, advertisement, imaginative response, notice or announcement, texts for classified section, short obituary, email

CAPS Grade 12 English First Additional Language: Shorter Transactional Texts


In Grade 12, it is important to master various forms of shorter transactional texts. These are practical, real-world texts that you might need to write in everyday life. Understanding their structure and language features will help you communicate effectively in different contexts.

Key Points

Writing Directions

  • Purpose: To help someone reach a destination.
  • Text Structure:
  • Chronological Order: Use words like ‘firstly’, ‘next’, ‘then’.
  • Specific Directions: Include terms like ‘left’, ‘right’, ‘south’.
  • Approximate Distances: Use measurements like ‘100 meters’, ‘half a kilometre’.
  • Landmarks: Mention identifiable markers (e.g., ‘You will see a fountain on the right’).

  • Language Features:

  • Imperative Form: ‘Turn left’, ‘continue straight’【4:1†source】.
  • Present Simple Tense with Pronouns: ‘When you reach the junction, turn left’.

Writing a Procedural Text

  • Purpose: Explains how to do something step-by-step.
  • Text Structure:
  • Sequenced Steps: Use ‘first’, ‘then’, ‘next’.
  • Lists: Bullet points for ingredients or steps.
  • Diagrams: Include if necessary.

  • Language Features:

  • Imperative Form: ‘Unpack the appliance’, ‘check the switch’【4:4†source】.
  • Short Sentences: Keep instructions clear.
  • Passive Voice: Use when appropriate (‘When the phone is switched on…’).

Creating an Advertisement

  • Purpose: Persuade readers to buy a product or use a service.
  • Text Structure:
  • Attract Attention: Start with a catchy phrase.
  • Interest: Keep the reader engaged with interesting content.
  • Desire: Explain why the reader needs the product.
  • Action: Provide a way to purchase, like a phone number or website.

  • Language Features:

  • Persuasive Language: Use metaphors, similes, and other figures of speech.
  • Rhetorical Questions: Engage the reader.
  • Call to Action: Encourage immediate response by providing clear instructions【4:6†source】.

Writing a Notice or Announcement

  • Purpose: Inform the public about an event or situation.
  • Text Structure:
  • Clear Heading: Identify the event or notice.
  • Details: Provide all necessary information like date, time, and place.

  • Language Features:

  • Formal and Concise: Use straightforward language.
  • Present or Future Tense: Depending on the nature of the announcement.

Writing an Imaginative Response

  • Purpose: Express feelings or thoughts inspired by an image, event, or text.
  • Text Structure:
  • Introduction: Briefly introduce what you are responding to.
  • Body: Describe your thoughts and feelings.
  • Conclusion: Summarize your reflections.

  • Language Features:

  • Descriptive Language: Use vivid adjectives and adverbs.
  • Figurative Language: Similes, metaphors to add depth.

Writing Texts for the Classified Section

  • Purpose: Advertise items or services in a concise manner.
  • Text Structure:
  • Headline: Short and attention-grabbing.
  • Details: Essential information like price, contact info, brief description.

  • Language Features:

  • Concise: Use abbreviations and acronyms to save space.

Writing a Short Obituary

  • Purpose: Announce someone’s death and honor their life.
  • Text Structure:
  • Name and Date: State the full name of the deceased and dates of birth and death.
  • Survivors: List close surviving family members.
  • Funeral Details: Include time, date, and place of the funeral【4:8†source】.

  • Language Features:

  • Respectful and Formal.

Writing an Email

  • Purpose: Communicate messages through electronic mail.
  • Text Structure:
  • Subject Line: Clear and summarizing the email’s content.
  • Greeting: Address the recipient appropriately.
  • Body: Clear, concise, divided into paragraphs.
  • Closing: Include a polite closing and your signature.

  • Language Features:

  • Formal or Informal: Depending on the recipient.
  • Clear and Direct.

Real-World Applications

  • Giving clear directions helps people find locations easily.
  • Procedural texts are essential for recipes, manuals, and instructions.
  • Advertisements can be used to sell products or services effectively.
  • Writing notices or announcements is important for community events and updates.
  • Classified ads help in buying and selling items quickly.
  • Obituaries provide a respectful way to inform about someone’s passing.
  • Emails are a staple of professional and personal communication.

Common Misconceptions and Errors

  • Directions: Avoid vague terms; always be specific.
  • Procedures: Ensure steps are in the right order.
  • Advertisements: Don’t overload with information.
  • Notices: Avoid leaving out essential details.
  • Emails: Keep subject lines clear and relevant.

Practice and Review

  1. Write Directions: Practice by directing someone to a local landmark.
  2. Create an Advertisement: Design an ad for a school event.
  3. Draft an Email: Respond to a formal invitation.

For further practice, explore resources that provide exercises and model texts to enhance your skills.

Summary and Quick Review

  • Shorter transactional texts: Essential for clear, concise communication.
  • Key aspects: Understand text structure and language features.
  • Application: Useful in everyday scenarios like giving directions, writing emails, and creating advertisements.

Additional Resources

By mastering these various forms of shorter transactional texts, you will be equipped to handle numerous writing tasks efficiently in both your academic and personal life.

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