Grade 2 Mathematics Lesson Plan: Numbers, Operations, and Relationships

Lesson Plan Title:

Grade 2 Mathematics Lesson Plan: Solving Addition and Subtraction Problems up to 99

Materials Needed:

  • Chalkboard/whiteboard and markers
  • Number charts (1-100)
  • Addition and subtraction worksheets
  • Flashcards with numbers
  • Manipulatives (e.g., counters, blocks)
  • Tablets or laptops with educational math games (if available)
  • Textbook: CAPS-aligned Mathematics Textbook for Grade 2

Learning Objectives:

By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:
– Solve addition problems up to 99.
– Solve subtraction problems up to 99.
– Understand the relationship between addition and subtraction.
– Demonstrate accuracy and fluency in basic arithmetic operations.


  1. Addition: The process of finding the total or sum by combining two or more numbers.
  2. Subtraction: The process of finding the difference between two numbers by taking one away from another.
  3. Sum: The result of adding two or more numbers.
  4. Difference: The result of subtracting one number from another.
  5. Equation: A mathematical statement that shows the equality of two expressions.

Previous Learning:

Students have previously learned to count up to 99 and are familiar with basic one-digit addition and subtraction. They understand the concepts of ‘more than’ and ‘less than’.

Anticipated Challenges and Solutions:

  • Challenge: Difficulty in carrying over during addition.
  • Solution: Use visual aids like number charts and manipulatives to demonstrate carrying over.
  • Challenge: Confusion between addition and subtraction.
  • Solution: Provide clear examples and visual demonstrations to distinguish the two operations.

Beginning Activities (4 minutes):

  1. Introduction of Learning Objectives (2 minutes):
  2. Briefly explain the day’s objectives: “Today, we are going to learn how to solve addition and subtraction problems up to 99.”
  3. Warm-Up Activity (2 minutes):
  4. Use number flashcards for a quick recap of addition and subtraction facts within 10 to activate prior knowledge.

Middle Activities (32 minutes):

  1. Direct Instruction (10 minutes):
  2. Addition: Demonstrate solving an addition problem like 45 + 32 on the board. Show step-by-step how to line up the numbers, add units first, then tens, and explain carrying over.
  3. Subtraction: Demonstrate solving a subtraction problem like 76 – 34. Show step-by-step how to line up the numbers, subtract units first, then tens, and explain borrowing if necessary.
  4. Guided Practice (10 minutes):
  5. Work on a few problems together as a class using number charts and manipulatives. Call on volunteers to come up to the board and solve problems with the class’s help.
  6. Independent Practice (10 minutes):
  7. Hand out worksheets with a mix of addition and subtraction problems up to 99 for students to complete individually. Circulate to provide support as needed.
  8. Math Games (2 minutes):
  9. If tablets or laptops are available, let students play math games focused on addition and subtraction.

End Activities (4 minutes):

  1. Exit Ticket Activity (4 minutes):
  2. Hand out small slips of paper. Ask students to solve one addition problem and one subtraction problem up to 99.
  3. Collect the exit tickets to check their understanding.

Assessment and Checks for Understanding:

  • Warm-up activity responses.
  • Participation in guided practice.
  • Accuracy of students’ independent practice worksheets.
  • Exit ticket problems.

Differentiation Strategies for Diverse Learners:

  • Scaffolding: Provide additional manipulatives and visual aids for students who struggle.
  • Extension Activities: Give advanced students more challenging problems involving larger numbers or word problems.
  • One-on-One Support: Work individually with students who need extra help during independent practice.

Teaching Notes:

  • The purpose of this lesson is to solidify students’ understanding of two-digit addition and subtraction.
  • Emphasise the step-by-step process and encourage students to ask questions if they don’t understand.
  • Use positive reinforcement to build confidence in students, especially those who find the concepts challenging.
  • Be mindful of students with visual impairments; ensure all visual aids are clear and accessible.

By following this structured lesson plan, you will provide your Grade 2 students with a comprehensive and engaging approach to solving addition and subtraction problems up to 99.

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