Grade 4 Mathematics Lesson Plan: Introduction to Ratios

Materials Needed:

  • Whiteboard and markers
  • Bags of colored candies or counters
  • Worksheets with ratio problems
  • Chart paper and markers for group work
  • Pictorial representations of ratios (e.g., bar models, part-to-whole diagrams)

Learning Objectives:

  • Understand the concept of ratios as a way to compare quantities.
  • Learn how to write and interpret ratios in different forms.
  • Apply the concept of ratios to solve simple real-world problems.


  1. Ratio – A comparison of two quantities by division.
  2. Equivalent Ratios – Ratios that express the same relationship between numbers.
  3. Part-to-Part Ratio – Compares different parts of a group to each other.
  4. Part-to-Whole Ratio – Compares one part of the group to the entire group.

Previous Learning:

Students should have a solid understanding of multiplication and division, as these concepts are foundational for understanding ratios.

Anticipated Challenges and Solutions:

  • Challenge: Students may struggle to distinguish between ratios and fractions.
  • Solution: Clearly demonstrate that while ratios and fractions both compare quantities, ratios are used specifically to show how much of one thing there is compared to another, and not necessarily parts of a whole.

Beginning Activities (4 minutes):

  • Start with a simple question: “If I have 2 blue candies and 3 red candies, how can we compare these using numbers?”
  • Introduce the concept of ratios by explaining that it is a way to show how many of one thing there is compared to another.

Middle Activities (32 minutes):

  1. Direct Instruction (8 minutes): Use colored candies to visually explain the concept of part-to-part and part-to-whole ratios. Demonstrate how to write a ratio using the colon format (e.g., 2:3) and word format (e.g., 2 to 3).
  2. Guided Practice (12 minutes): Distribute bags of candies to groups. Ask each group to create different ratios using their candies and write them on chart paper.
  3. Independent Practice (12 minutes): Hand out worksheets with various scenarios where students have to find and write the ratio (e.g., dogs to cats, boys to girls in a picture).

End Activities (4 minutes):

  • Class Discussion: Have each group share one ratio they created and explain how they figured it out.
  • Exit Ticket: Give each student a quick task of writing a ratio they encounter in the classroom (e.g., number of windows to doors).

Assessment and Checks for Understanding:

  • Observe students during the guided practice to ensure they understand how to form ratios.
  • Review worksheets to assess their ability to independently identify and write ratios.
  • Evaluate exit tickets to check for understanding of the day’s lesson.

Differentiation Strategies for Diverse Learners:

  • Scaffolding: Provide additional visual aids and examples for students who need more support in understanding ratios.
  • Extension Activities: Challenge advanced students to explore more complex scenarios or to find equivalent ratios.

Teaching Notes:

  • Stress the importance of accuracy in counting and comparing to ensure correct ratio formation.
  • Encourage collaboration and discussion among students to facilitate a deeper understanding and application of ratios.
  • Use real-life examples where possible to make the concept more relatable and engaging.

This lesson plan aims to introduce Grade 4 students to the concept of ratios, providing them with both visual and practical experiences to enhance their understanding and ability to use ratios in everyday contexts.

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