Grade R Mathematics Lesson Plan: Introduction to Additive Relations

Materials Needed:

  • Counting objects (e.g., blocks, beads, plastic fruits)
  • Large visual aids with addition signs and equals signs
  • Number cards
  • Worksheets with simple addition problems (using images)
  • Finger puppets for interactive counting
  • Whiteboard and markers

Learning Objectives:

  • Understand the concept of addition as combining two groups of objects to make a larger group.
  • Practice counting objects to find totals.
  • Develop an understanding of additive relationships through hands-on activities.


  1. Add – To combine two or more numbers to get a larger number.
  2. Total – The final amount you get when you add things together.
  3. Plus Sign (+) – A symbol that shows addition.
  4. Equals Sign (=) – A symbol that shows that the values on both sides are the same.

Previous Learning:

Students should be familiar with counting objects up to at least 10 and recognizing numbers from 1 to 10.

Anticipated Challenges and Solutions:

  • Challenge: Students may struggle with the concept of addition as more than just counting.
  • Solution: Use real objects to physically combine groups, making the concept of addition tangible and visually clear.

Beginning Activities (5 minutes):

  • Warm up with a counting song that incorporates numbers and simple addition, like “Five Little Ducks” or a similar interactive counting song.
  • Show addition using a visual example, like adding 2 blocks to 3 blocks and counting them all together.

Middle Activities (25 minutes):

  1. Direct Instruction (5 minutes): Introduce the plus and equals signs using large visual aids. Demonstrate how to set up a simple addition equation using these signs.
  2. Guided Practice (10 minutes): Hand out counting objects and number cards. Help children work through simple addition problems, like 3+2, by combining sets of objects and counting the total.
  3. Interactive Activity (10 minutes): Use finger puppets to engage children in adding more interactive scenarios, such as adding 2 puppet animals to 3 puppet animals and having the children count how many animals there are in total.

End Activities (5 minutes):

  • Worksheet Activity: Provide worksheets with simple addition problems using pictures (e.g., images of fruits to add together). Assist the children in completing at least one problem together.
  • Discussion and Recap: Review what addition means and how we use the plus sign and equals sign in addition. Ask children to describe in their own words what adding means.

Assessment and Checks for for Understanding:

  • Observe children during the guided practice to ensure they grasp how to combine and count sets.
  • Check worksheets to see if children can apply what they’ve learned to complete the addition problems.
  • Listen to children’s explanations during the recap to gauge their understanding of the concept.

Differentiation Strategies for Diverse Learners:

  • Scaffolding: For children struggling with counting, use fewer objects and focus on numbers up to 5 before introducing larger numbers.
  • Extension Activities: For children who grasp the concept quickly, introduce simple “take away” problems to begin discussing subtraction as the opposite of addition.

Teaching Notes:

  • Keep activities playful and engaging to maintain the children’s attention.
  • Encourage children to use their fingers for counting, as this can help solidify their understanding of numbers and addition.
  • Ensure that the concepts are introduced slowly and repeated often to help embed the understanding of additive relations.

This lesson plan is crafted to introduce Grade R students to the foundational concept of addition, using hands-on activities and visual aids to create a fun and educational experience that builds essential early mathematics skills.

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