# CAPS Physical Sciences Grade 12: Revision Notes on Electric Circuits

## Introduction

Electric circuits form a fundamental part of the Grade 12 Physical Sciences curriculum. Understanding electric circuits is crucial for learners as it integrates theoretical knowledge with practical applications, enhancing problem-solving and analytical skills.

**Learning Objectives:**

– Grasp the concepts of current, voltage, and resistance.

– Understand series and parallel circuits.

– Apply Ohm’s Law in calculations.

– Analyze circuits to determine values of voltage, current, and resistance.

## Key Points

### 1. Basic Concepts

**Electric Current (I):**Flow of electric charge per unit time, measured in Amperes (A). ( I = \frac{\Delta Q}{\Delta t} )**Potential Difference (V):**Work done to move a unit charge between two points, measured in Volts (V). ( V = \frac{W}{Q} )**Resistance (R):**Opposition to the flow of current, measured in Ohms (Ω). ( R = \frac{V}{I} )

### 2. Ohm’s Law

- States that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. Formula: ( V = IR )

### 3. Series and Parallel Circuits

**Series Circuits:**Components connected in a single path. Total Resistance ( R_s = R_1 + R_2 + R_3 + \ldots )**Parallel Circuits:**Components connected across the same two points. Total Resistance ( \frac{1}{R_p} = \frac{1}{R_1} + \frac{1}{R_2} + \frac{1}{R_3} + \ldots )

### 4. Internal Resistance

- Real batteries have internal resistance (( r )). The total voltage provided by the battery is ( \epsilon = I (R_{\text{ext}} + r) ), where ( \epsilon ) is the emf (Electromotive Force).

### 5. Power in Electric Circuits

- Power (P) is the rate at which energy is used or produced, measured in Watts (W). Formulas: ( P = VI ), ( P = I^2R ), ( P = \frac{V^2}{R} )

## Real-World Applications

### Example Problem

A battery of emf 24 V and internal resistance 0.5 Ω is connected in series with resistors of 4 Ω, 6 Ω, and a 10 Ω. Calculate the current in the circuit.

**Solution:**

1. **Calculate Total Resistance:**

[

R_{\text{total}} = 4\, \Omega + 6\, \Omega + 10\, \Omega = 20\, \Omega

]

2. **Apply Ohm’s Law:**

[

I = \frac{\epsilon}{R_{\text{total}} + r} = \frac{24\, V}{20\, \Omega + 0.5\, \Omega} = \frac{24\, V}{20.5\, \Omega} = 1.17\, A

]

The current in the circuit is ( 1.17\, A ).

## Common Misconceptions and Errors

**Misunderstanding Series and Parallel Resistor Calculations:****Error:**Adding conductors’ resistance directly in parallel as in series.-
**Avoiding Strategy:**Carefully use the parallel resistor formula: ( \frac{1}{R_p} = \frac{1}{R_1} + \frac{1}{R_2} + \frac{1}{R_3} + \ldots ) -
**Incorrect Application of Ohm’s Law:** **Error:**Ignoring the internal resistance of the battery.**Avoiding Strategy:**Always include internal resistance in total resistance calculations.

## Practice and Review

### Practice Questions

**Calculate Current and Voltage:**

a) A circuit with a 12V battery, internal resistance 0.8 Ω, and an external resistor of 4.2 Ω.

b) A circuit containing three resistors (2 \, \Omega), (4 \, \Omega), and (6 \, \Omega) in parallel, connected to a 12V battery with negligible internal resistance.

### Detailed Solutions:

- a)
**Total Resistance:**( R_{\text{total}} = 4.2 \, \Omega + 0.8 \, \Omega = 5 \, \Omega )**Current:**( I = \frac{12 \, V}{5 \, \Omega} = 2.4 \, A )-
**Voltage across external resistor:**( V = IR = 2.4 \, A \times 4.2 \, \Omega = 10.08 \, V ) -
b)

**Total Resistance in Parallel:**

[

\frac{1}{R_p} = \frac{1}{2 \, \Omega} + \frac{1}{4 \, \Omega} + \frac{1}{6 \, \Omega} = 0.833 \, \Omega

]**Current:**( I = \frac{12 \, V}{0.833 \, \Omega} = 14.4 \, A )

### Examination Tips

**Keywords:**Look out for “series,” “parallel,” “total resistance,” “current,” and “voltage.”**Time Management:**Allocate around 1.2 minutes per mark in your test or exam.

## Connections and Extensions

Understanding basic electric circuits helps in comprehending more complex topics like Electrodynamics and AC circuits. It is also fundamental to fields such as electrical engineering and household electronics application.

## Summary and Quick Review

**Current (I):**( I = \frac{\Delta Q}{\Delta t} )**Voltage (V):**( V = \frac{W}{Q} )**Resistance (R):**( R = \frac{V}{I} )**Ohm’s Law:**( V = IR )**Series Circuits:**( R_s = R_1 + R_2 + \ldots )**Parallel Circuits:**( \frac{1}{R_p} = \frac{1}{R_1} + \frac{1}{R_2} + \ldots )

## Additional Resources

By consolidating these core principles, practicing diligently, and exploring additional resources, students can master the concept of electric circuits and ensure their success in exams and practical applications .